NUTRITION 101 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2

NUTRITION 101 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2
Carbohydrates
Compare and contrast the Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides
Describe the difference between starch and fiber.
Compare and contrast a Condensation Reaction vs. Hydrolysis Reaction
What food sources contain carbohydrate?
What are some sources of dietary fiber? Discuss the recommendations for dietary fiber.
What is lactose intolerance?
Where does Carbohydrate Digestion begin?
What enzymes act in Carbohydrate Digestion?
What are the health effects of sugars?
What are the health effects of artificial sweeteners?
What does the liver do when blood glucose falls?
What does the body do if glycogen stores are depleted?
What happens to blood sugar when these hormones are secreted? When are these hormones secreted? Insulin, Glucagon, and Epinephrine
Describe the difference between Diabetes Type I and Type II.

What is a normal blood sugar? What is hypoglycemia? Hyperglycemia?

What are some of the health effects of a diet rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber?

Lipids
Classes of Lipids include: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols.
What is a phospholipid?
What is cholesterol?
Describe the Chemists View of each; what is the basic structure?
How do fatty acids differ?
Saturation, Unsaturation, Hydrogenation
How does the degree of saturation change the properties?
Three Classes of lipids found in the body and foods. Triglycerides; phospholipids and sterols
Describe hydrogenation?
What makes a lipids more solid or liquid?
Phospholipids roles in the body?
What are Sterols’ roles in the body? What food sources contain cholesterol?
Describe the difference between LDL and HDL in terms of cholesterol and protein composition.
Triglycerides-composed of a glycerol and fatty acids what are their roles in the body?
Compare and contrast the Nonessential vs. Essential Fatty Acids and their health effects.
Linoleic vs. Linolenic Acid: What are some good food sources?
What are the health implications of excessive fat intake? Too little fat intake?
Which one is the “good” cholesterol? Why?
What are the desirable levels for blood lipids? LDL, HDL, TOTAL Cholesterol, and Triglycerides?
What is a Tran’s fat? What types of foods contain an appreciable amount of Tran’s fat? What are some of the risks of having a diet high in Tran’s fats?
Proteins
Describe the differences between essential, nonessential and conditionally essential amino acids.
What are some of the functions of Proteins in the body?
Describe protein functions in the body.
What is the kcaloric range recommendation for a 2000kcal diet based upon 10-35% protein? How many kcalories should come from protein, give the range for the mentioned
percentages.
Describe Protein Digestion
What are complementary proteins? Give examples of food combinations that contain complementary proteins.
List the enzymes involved in Protein Digestion
What are some of the health implications if you are protein deficient?
What are the health effects over time from consuming too much protein?
What is a high quality protein?
Describe digestibility of proteins.
What are some good plant sources of protein?
What do we call the conversion of protein to glucose?
How does the body use amino acids?
What conditions are associated with zero, positive, and negative nitrogen balance?

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