This week, our repertory has focused on the Classical-era composers of Haydn, Mozart and
Beethoven. As mentioned in Module 19, order and reason are considered hallmarks of the Classical
style?and yet even within this style, composers tried to do innovative things that transcended the
For this week?s journal, take one piece by EACH of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven and write a
narrative addressing two things:
? How does each composer reflect traditional features of Classical era style in their piece?
? Name at least one or two features that seem innovative or unusual for the period.
To help you get organized, below is a listing of all the repertory in Modules 19-24, along with the
focus questions I have asked about each piece.
MODULE 19/20: The Classical Style, Classical Form
Review these modules for a sense of the standard models in treating melody, harmony, rhythm,
texture, form, etc.
MODULE 21: Classical Chamber Music
Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in C Major, Op. 76, No., 3, ?Emperor?: II
? Form: Theme and variations
? How would you describe the theme in terms of melody, harmony and rhythm?
? What is being changed in each variation? What new elements are added? Can you still hear the
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music): I and III
First movement: sonata form
? Can you differentiate the three sections of this form? How are they similar? How are they
? How do the themes of each section differ in melody, harmony and rhythm?
Third movement: minuet
? Can you differentiate the various sections?
? How would you describe the main melody? How is the trio section different?
How would you describe the overall mood of each movement?
MODULE 22: The Classical Symphony
Haydn, Symphony No. 100, II
? Nicknamed ?Military? symphony
? How are the sections of this ternary form different in melody, harmony, rhythm, etc.?
? What aspects create a ?military? impression?
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, Op. 67
? A pioneer of cyclic form — ideas from early in the piece are used again later on
? ?Fate motive? of opening four notes
? Expressive and dramatic elements
? Idea of struggle leading to triumph
MODULE 23: Classical Concerto and Sonata
Mozart, Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453, I
? Can you distinguish the formal elements (double exposition, development, recapitulation)?
? How would you describe the melodic character?
? Aspects of harmony and rhythm
? How does the soloist relate to the orchestra? How often do they interact? Do they share any
musical material between them?
Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2, I
? Beethoven piano sonatas among the finest of their kind for depth of expression
? Nicknamed ?Moonlight Sonata,? though not considered ?program? music
? How does this piece break traditional models of classical form?
? How are melody, harmony, and rhythm used to create a distinctive atmosphere?
MODULE 24: Classical Choral Music and Opera
Mozart, Don Giovanni: Act I, Scene 2 and catalog aria
? Act 1, Scene 2: Donna Elvira aria. Melody reflecting character?s rage; breaking up the standard
da capo aria form
? Recitative: Speechlike, bare accompaniment
? Leporello ?catalog aria?: two sections, patter style combined with more lyrical style