CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENTRevision – CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
“the information I ask for was not in the paper so there are things that need to be fixed.
I will send u the copy of the paper that I corrected and give the writer all the information that was giving me from the school they will need to bring this paper up so I can get my degree.
so I have attach the paper that was giving to me I did some edited on it but this is the issues that the school wanted to be fix before I can get my degree.
this is a thesis in Theology, therefore then paper must express in-depths research on your topic.
each chapter must be 3 pages long, with 3-4 foot notes pre pages and the foot notes must be from books only, when doing the footnotes, its author name the title of the book should be underline only then the page number you can use Ibids or Loc,ct ect,,. issues in the paper, chapter 2 with each prophecy that is explain in this thesis must have a footnote from another book to go along with your theory or statement because your thesis must be proven base with in depths research. and with chapter 3 is the same thing we must get different books to explain the theory about Christ in the book of Psalms and the Messianic Psalms.
so in essence there must be a authoritative evidence to support the claim in this thesis in an intelligence and evidence base of the research”
A THESIS UPON THE SUBJECT
CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
Table of Contents
I Christ, the Center of Creation 5
• Christ in the book of Genesis
II Christ in Prophecy 8
• The Reliability of Old Testament Prophets
• The Prophecy of Moses
• The Prophecy of Daniel
• The Prophecy of Isaiah
• The Prophecy of Malachi
III Christ in the Book of Psalms 12
• The Messianic Psalms
CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
The Bible in its entirety has been described as inspired content that was delivered to humanity through the inspiration of a holy being, God himself. Scripture describes content alluding to God or his acts to humanity and has been documented through His command and guidance Himself. In order to analyze the presence of Christ in Scripture, especially in the Old Testament, we will need to establish an understanding of Christ as part of the Triune Godhead and the role of Christ, also referred to as Jesus in the components of the bible of scripture and its fundamental division into the Old and the New Testament.
To start with, the trinity Godhead has been comprised of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Their existence and functions have been complementarily conjoined from the advent. On the other hand, the separation of the Bible or scripture into the Old and the New Testamentsare based on the story of redemption that has its roots in creation as propagated through history, prophecy and ultimately actualized by the birth of Christ as a man in the New Testament. As such, the story of Jesus as part of the Godhead form the fundamental basis of scripture as chronologically portrayed and narrated through persons led and inspired by the Godhead itself.
The course of this thesis will thus venture to analyze Christ as part of the Godhead and the central figure upon which the entirety of scripture is based upon in the Old Testament. The subject of argument for this topic is based on scripture and as such its acceptance and complementary argument would be influenced by individual faith on the same. This thesis is appropriate and worthwhile in defending Christ regarding the Hope of Glory. In this work, there is a heart-to-heart analysis of the Old Testament to show that Christ is prevalent in most of the verses. It is my hope that all humankind will continue glorifying God and find it in their hearts to appreciate Jesus Christ as the Saviorof the universe.
I would take this chance to acknowledge the invaluable effort shown by all my family , friends, teachers, and advisory; who had a great impact on mewith your wisdom and great contribution to the writing of this thesis. A special thanks to Dr.Robert S. Thomas, Sr.., Ph.D, and Dr. Fay Singleton for your words of wisdom and encouragement, that gave me the tenacity to write this thesis.
CHRIST, THE CENTER OF CREATION
The Bible, and indeed the Old Testament alludes to the era before Christ was manifested by humanity kicking off with the story of creation. This forms the first mention of Christ or Jesus in the Bible. The story of creation kicks off with the spirit of God hovering over a formless and empty surface that was filled with darkness upon the waters. This alludes to the presence of God in the form of the Holy Spirit. Indeed too, the process of creation was carried out by God in this form and as such in conjunction with the others too. Further, there is additional evidence that alludes to the existence and participation of the Godhead in the process of creation. In the first chapter of Genesis and the verses 26 and 27, the Lord God said, “let us make man in our own image, after our likeness…”This is a clear indication that God the Father and Jesus Christ as the son alluded to the process of making man in their own image and as such participated in the whole process all along.
Genesis chapter 3:15 proclaims Christ as ‘the seed of the woman’ when God passes judgment on Adam and Eve after He found that they had sinned by eating from the tree in the midst of the garden that they had been forbidden. It goes that, the woman, Eve, was deceived by the serpent to eat the forbidden fruit while Adam ate from the woman knowing that he was forbidden (Gen. 2:9, 16–17 3:6b, 12). This reveals that the nature of Adam’s sin is different from that of the woman because he chose to go against the Lord and follow the love of his woman. But then, biologically, a man is the one to determine the gender of the child; so, therefore a sinful nature of a man passed through his genes to the child and not the woman meaning that if a woman could bear a child without the seed of a man, the child would be without a sin. Therefore, it explains why Genesis brands ‘Christ a seed of a woman’ that is he was to be born from a woman (Virgin) without an introduction of a sin from man (Romans 5:12).
Genesis chapter 6 and the verses of 6 and 7 say, “and Jehovah repented that he had made man on earth, and he was grieved to his heart…”As such, the beginning and further progression of the whole Testament from the beginning of mankind has alluded to the existence of Christ as part of the Godhead and an active participant in the process of creation. Genesis 22:18 says, ‘and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.’ This verse refers to Jesus Christ, a descendant of Abraham and David who will bless all the nations of the earth. This information is reinforced in the books of Acts 3:24-26; Galatians 3:8-9, 27-29. Genesis 15:7-21 as supported by Galatians 3:10-14 talk about Christ who brings on himself a curse of death in order to pay for the sins of the human race. Therefore, Jesus Christ is the main character in the events prevailing during creation thus taking center-stage in the Old Testament texts. In his creation-centered Christ story, Kevin Treston says;
For much of the story of Christianity, the Christ story has been told without reference to the context of creation. To tell the Christ story apart from the story of the universe exposes Christianity to the danger of isolating humanity from its Creator. In the Christ story, the material of the earth and all matter merge with the revealing Divine Spirit of God.
To conclude the chapter, Jesus Christ has played a central and integral part in the story of creation in the book of Genesis. Right from the fall of man in creation story and the beginning of the story of redemption, there is mention of the role of Christ in the course of this controversy as would be envisaged in the consequent turn of events that followed. Apart from the role played in the process of creation, further mention of Christ has been made in terms of prophecy into his existence as God and even as part of humanity in the future in line with the story of redemption. Some of the key prophecies and their reliability are discussed in the next chapter.
CHRIST IN PROPHECY
The Old Testament Prophets have made accurate and repeated predictions concerning the future happenings especially in the New Testament hence the credibility of the prophecies therein. The prophecies on earthly kingdoms such as Babylon and the coming of the Messiah from the lineage of David are examples of fulfilled prophecies that indicate the reliability of the prophets in the Old Testament. For instance, regarding the coming of Christ, Daniel 9:25 says, ‘Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the anointed one, the prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks…’This prophecy predicts that 69 weeks of years will pass between the decree to build Jerusalem and the coming of Messiah, Christ. Nehemiah 2 provides the exact date when Jerusalem as built when its texts are based on the Jewish calendar; therefore, this prophecy by Daniel is fulfilled as Jesus was born approximately 538 years later . More predictions regarding the Messiah also come through as shown by the texts Ezekiel 25:14; Jeremiah 49:16; Nehemiah 1:1-4; Nehemiah 2:5,6; Nehemiah 2:1; Deuteronomy 18:22; Isaiah 46:10.
The prophecy of Moses
Moses can be described as a form or type of Christ in the Old Testament; a type because he auspicates Jesus Christ and His coming in the New Testament. Notable similarities between Jesus and Moses include; both of them were chosen delivers of the people as evidenced in Exodus 3:7–10, Acts 7:25, John 3:16, Isa. 61:1–2, Luke 4:18–19, II Cor. 1:10, and I Thess. 1:10); Moses intermediated on behalf of the Jews and Jesus Christ intermediates on behalf of the people as shown in Num. 14:11–20, John 17:1–26, Rom. 8:33–34, Heb. 7:25, and I John 2:1; and the rulers of the lands, under satanic influence, plotted to have Moses and Jesus Christ killed after their births as seen in Ex. 1:22 and Matt. 2:16. The foreshadowing of Jesus Christ by Moses can also be seen when comparing between the judgments at Egypt and Christ’s salvation. At Egypt, Moses performed a lot of miracles under the guidance of the Lord God to show he was sent by Him (Acts 7:36) while Jesus performed various miracles during his ministries to show He is the true Son of God and Savior sent by Him (John 7:36). The verses in II Kings 18:12, II Chron. 24:6 and Neh. 9:14 predicate Moses as a servant of the Lord while Matt. 12:18 proclaim Jesus Christ the Son and Servant of God. Based on the similarities between the accounts of Moses and Jesus Christ while on earth, we can say that Moses foreshadowed Christ.
The Prophecy of Daniel
The book of Daniel has used prophetic texts to reveal Jesus Christ who emerges as the main character in the New Testament. Chapter 7 proclaims Christ as a ‘Son of Man’ who takes leadership with ancient authority and power. It says;
I saw in the night-visions, and, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man, and he came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is aneverlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
Son of man refers to Jesus Christ; as such, Daniel uses his divination to prophesy the coming of Christ who would rule all nations. The texts in Daniel 7:13-14 are reflected widely in the book of Matthew 12:40; 16:13-16; 17:9, 22-23. In the book of Daniel we also learn how the Lord delivered Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-Nego from being consumed by a fiery furnace; hence the human race is also delivered from the fire of hell through the grace of the Lord and Savior Christ as shown in the texts in Daniel 3 and Revelation 20:14-15.
The prophecy of Isaiah
The book of Isaiah forms the greatest repository regarding this prophecy and allusion to the coming of Jesus Christ amongst mankind in line with the story of redemption. The prophet talks about a turn or events that would later unfold in the New Testament. Ultimately, there is a symbolic presence and use of Jesus Christ in the stories of the old testament, from the use of Isaac as a sacrificial lamb to the story of Joseph and Moses, most of the acts in law books are a representation of the manner in which redemption changes the whole picture with the replacement of these practices by Christ as the ultimate sacrifice for mankind. Much mention of Christ as part of the Godhead specifically makes use of the word Jehovah as a direct reference to God the Son, or Jesus Christ. To this regard thus, any mention that makes use of this term can be directly said to be alluding to the existence of Christ and this has been seen especially in prophesying that would be further elaborated upon going forward.
The word Jehovah of Jehovah Elohim has been used as a reference as seen in Isaiah 45, the eleventh and twelfth chapter that says, “Jehovah is the holy one and the maker of Israel.” This has further worked to mention the input that Christ made in the process of creation where it goes further to mention, “I made earth and created the humans in it. I stretched the heavens with my own hands. I commanded all the stars to shine.” Indeed, prior to the flood, a mention is made of Jehovah being sorry of having made man, and the mention of Jehovah of Elohim has helped us to decipher that this mention alluded to Christ.
The prophecy of Malachi
Malachi is the last book of the Old Testament with only four chapters, but it has got plenty of prophecies indicating the existence of Jesus Christ. Malachi chapter 3 verse one says, “Behold, I send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek …saith Jehovah of hosts.” Malachi 3:1 is a prophecy of a messenger who would come to prepare the people for the Messiah, Jesus. The messenger is John the Baptist, who would be like a second Elijah and prepare the way for Christ. This prophecy is elaborated further in Matthew 11:7-1. Malachi 4:2 gives a further proclamation of Christ as the sun of righteousness who comes with the power to heal in His wings. The same sentiments are shared in Matthew 17:1-2 whereby Jesus transfigured before Peter, James, and John to make his face shine like the sun and his clothing white as the light of day. Therefore, Malachi 4:2 and Matthew 17:1-2 appear to talk about the same thing though the former is the prophecy of the other. Other texts that reflect Jesus as the sun of righteousness mentioned in Malachi 4: 2 include Acts 26:12-18; Revelation 1:16; 21:23; 22:5 Romans 1:16-17; 3:21-26; I Corinthians 1:30; II Corinthians 5:21.
To conclude this chapter, Jesus Christ is a highly dominant figure in the Old Testament Prophecies. The prophets discussed have forecasted and even gave a clear indication of the coming of the Son of the Most High, Christ. To give credibility to these prophets, there are many texts it the books of the New Testament that refer to their prophecies.
CHRIST IN THE BOOK OF PSALMS
The book of Psalms is normally referred as a messianic book because of underlying texts that portray the plight of Messiah and His eventual victory. These texts may not stand on their own, but they are highly supported by other Bible verses in the New Testament. Psalms simply mean texts or songs of praise hence the major subject matter of the book is to praise God. Since there are many texts in the book of the Psalms that refer to the Messiah, Jesus Christ, the book also praises Christ as the son of the Lord God.
In his chapter ‘Christ in the Psalms’ E. S. McKitrick says;
Indeed, it has been asserted, and not without reason, that out of the Psalms one could compile a biography of Jesus. His eternal Sonship is declared in the Second Psalm: “Jehovah said unto Me, Thou art My Son; This day have I begotten Thee.” … and in the Twenty-Second: “Thou art My God since My mother bore Me.” It is at least suggestive of the supernatural birth of Jesus…. His favorite name, “Son of Man,” is taken from the Eighth Psalm, as well as from the Book of Daniel…, He is presented in the Second Psalm as the “Son of God,” and in the same Psalm He is called the “Anointed,” that is, “the Christ,” while the Twenty-Third is evidently the origin of “the Good Shepherd.” (Psalms 1, 2, 8, 22, and 23)
Psalms 2 is the first messianic psalm as it makes a direct reference to Christ, “…the rulers take counsel together, Against Jehovah, and against his anointed…” These words are reiterated in Acts 4: 25-28. Jehovah and his anointed simply refers to God and his chosen son Jesus Christ. Verse 7 of Psalm 2 says, “I will tell of the decree: Jehovah said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.”These words mark the fulfillment of a promise God gave to the people that He will give them a son, Jesus. These words are retold in the book of Acts 13:33, “that God hath fulfilled the same unto our children, in that he raised up Jesus; as also it is written in the second psalm…” and also in Hebrews 1:5 and Hebrews 5:5. According to Psalms 2:9, God promises to give the people a being that would rule with an iron rod and have authority to conquer nations. These words are then revealed in the Revelations of John chapter 2 in verses 26 and 27, “…to him will I give authority over the nations:and he shall rule them with a rod of iron…” and in Revelation 12:5 and Revelation 19:15
Psalms 16:8-11 texts reveal rejoice that since the Lord is always on the right hand, no trouble will come on the way. There is also a promise that a Holy one will neither suffer nor abandoned or see corruption. The texts in Psalm 16 are only an indirect reference to Jesus Christ who died on the cross to cleanse the sins of man, and He had neither his flesh corrupted nor abandoned to the Hades by Jehovah, the Lord as evidenced by His resurrection. The same texts in Psalms 16:8-11 appear in the book of Acts 2:25-32 which crowns to say that the psalms were a prophecy regarding Jesus ‘death and resurrection. Acts 13:34-37 add weight to these psalms by saying, “… he saith also in another psalm, Thou wilt not give Thy Holy One to see corruption …” Acts 13:34-37 makes the important reference to Psalms where God promises to the people that he wouldn’t abandon them in any circumstance whereby Jesus Christ is an example that God never abandoned.
Psalms 22 is among the chapters in the book that can be said to have the biggest number of messianic psalms. Almost the entire chapter makes a direct or indirect reference to Jesus Christ. Looking at Psalms 22:1, the texts talk of something very common in the Gospel books of Mathew and Mark, “…My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Why art thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my groaning?”On the other hand, Mathew 27:46 share the same text when Jesus cries on the cross during his crucifixion when he cried out loud in pain saying, “… Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” The books do not have these texts as a mere coincidence but because they refer to Jesus Christ. Psalms 22:1 mentions that the psalm is regarded to David and we understand that Jesus Christ has His roots from David hence there is a connection to show that it is a messianic psalm. Chapter 22:7-8 have a close connection with the New Testament of Christ as seen in Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34 whereby the all these texts in the verses reveal Jesus as the Son of God to deliver man. Psalms 22:18, 22 also have references in Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34, and John 19:23-24 that portray Jesus Christ as a major character in the book of Psalms and the center of the Old Testament.
Psalms is full of prophecies of Jesus Christ, his plight and suffering, his person, death and resurrection, Him as ruler and King, his gospel ministry, and Christianity and the church. These Psalms should be interpreted Christological and prophetic manner to reveal their underlying connection to Jesus Christ.
To sum it up, Christ plays central part in the stories and prophecies in the Old Testament. All the way from the beginning of creation of man to the last book of Malachi, Christ is predominant character; as such, it reveals that Christ has always existed even before the creation of man. The story of creation has put Him in the center by proclaiming Him as the ‘seed of the woman.’ The prophetic books have also foreshadowed and forecasted Christ as the son of man promised by the Lord. Basically, almost every book in the Old Testament has a text in connection with Christ or His coming. Jesus Christ is the link between the Old Testament and the New Testament . God’s revelation reaches its climax is not a new teaching, but a Person, God’s own Son. The Old and New Testaments are related, therefore, not as law gospel but as promise fulfillment Therefore, as Christians, we should accept the role of Christ who was sent by the Lord to deliver us from the world of sin; we should prepare and await for his second coming.
Alsup, Wendy, Jessi Gering, and Matthew Henry. 2016. “The Old Testament Is Filled With Fulfilled Prophecy – Topical Studies”. Bible Study Tools. http://www.biblestudytools.com/bible-study/topical-studies/the-old-testament-is-filled-with-fulfilled-prophecy-11652232.html.
Bohr, Stephen. 2015. “7. Christ Is The Center Of Bible Prophecy Part 1 – Audioverse”. Audioverse.Org. https://www.audioverse.org/english/sermons/recordings/7467/7-christ-is-the-center-of-bible-prophecy-part-1.html.
CWR Staff,. 2013. “”Christ Is The Centre Of Creation, Christ Is The Centre Of His People And Christ Is The Centre Of History.” | Catholic World Report – Global Church News And Views”. Catholicworldreport.Com. http://www.catholicworldreport.com/Blog/2743/christ_is_the_centre_of_creation_christ_is_the_centre_of_his_people_and_christ_is_the_centre_of_history.aspx.
“Jesus In The Psalms”. 2016. Colsoncenter.Org. http://www.colsoncenter.org/the-center/columns/viewpoint/19662-the-path-to-glory-2.
Kevin Treston, 2010. Chapter Seven of A Modern Credo: Telling the Christ Story within the context of Creation. John Garratt Publishing (pp 102 – 110). Available at http://www.bne.catholic.edu.au/formationandleadership/Mission%20and%20Formation%20docs/Readings/The%20Creation-Centred%20Christ%20Story%20-%20Kevin%20Treston.pdf
McKitrick E. S., 1907. Christ in the Psalms, From The Psalms in Worship, edited by John McNaugher, Pittsburgh. Available at http://www.reformedonline.com/uploads/1/5/0/3/15030584/christ_in_the_psalms.pdf